The short answer to the question “can I catch a cold from my cat?” is yes, but it is extremely rare.
Otherwise known as an Upper Respiratory Infection, or URI, the common cold in both cats and humans is caused by any number of different viruses. However, they generally are not transmitted between species.
There are some environmental factors that may make it easier for you and your cat to be susceptible to these viruses. For example, stress and cold weather can suppress the immune system and make it more likely for cats and humans to be affected by a URI. But, the causative agent will (virus or bacterium) will most likely be different.